Closer Look Studies

Budget Cuts and Their Impact on Library Services to Coloradans

In fall 2003, a survey commissioned by the Strategic Issues and Emergency Response (SIER) Committee of the Colorado Association of Libraries (CAL) and administered by the Library Research Service (LRS) measured the extent of local budget cuts to libraries across Colorado. The Budget Cut Survey found that cuts to local library budgets in the state had totaled over 11 million dollars between July 2002 and the time of the survey.

Adult and Family Literacy Activities in Colorado Public Libraries

This study was commissioned by the Colorado Department of Education’s (CDE) Center for At-Risk Education (CARE) to learn about adult and family literacy activities taking place in Colorado’s public libraries. In the past there was federal funding available through the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) for public library literacy activities. CARE wanted to learn how the loss of this federal funding has affected the library literacy community in the long term. CARE also initiated this study to update its database of literacy programs in Colorado. It will use the information to network with public libraries about new programs and opportunities and to increase awareness of the role of libraries in adult education and family literacy activities.

Colorado Courier Cost Comparison Study

The Colorado Courier is a cooperative service of the seven regional library systems of Colorado. It provides delivery service for library materials to participating libraries across the state. The statewide courier service is administered by the Central Colorado Library System (CCLS) and funded by the seven regional library service systems. Participating libraries pay to use the service.

CCLS contracted with the Library Research Service (LRS) at the Colorado State Library to study how economical the courier service is for the libraries that use it. LRS surveyed 34 libraries using the courier service in February 2003 to learn how much material was shipped via the courier service during a week. The purpose of the survey was to provide data to compare the costs of transporting library materials throughout the state by the Colorado Courier service to using commercial alternatives like the United States Post Office (USPS), United Parcel Service (UPS), or Federal Express (FedEx).

Analysis of the data shows the courier service saves libraries money when compared to the cost of shipping the materials by commercial services. The cost of alternative delivery services is much more expensive than the amounts libraries in Colorado currently pay to use the statewide courier service. The least expensive alternative examined, USPS Library Mail, was found to cost more than 3 times as much as using the courier service when only weight shipped was considered. However, weight shipped would not account for all the extra costs libraries would bear in shipping by commercial services. Packing materials and labor add even more to the costs for shipping library materials commercially than are now required for the courier service.

Counting on Results: New Tools for Outcome-Based Evaluation of Public Libraries

In recent years, public libraries have been urged to engage in outcome-based evaluation and decision-making. Organizations in both the private and public sectors have been hearing this call from funders for several years. When the Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) was passed in 1996, the Institute for Museum and Library Services mandated outcome-based evaluation as part of its grantmaking to public and other types of libraries from LSTA funds. To date, the focus of most activity responding to this call has focused on outcomes of special projects receiving short-term funding via state and federal grants. The Counting on Results (CoR) project shifted the focus from special projects to ongoing library services. The goals of the project were to develop and demonstrate the potential utility of new tools for outcome-based evaluation of public library services (see Chapters 1 and
2). These tools include the following:

  • customizable software for Palm personal digital assistants (PDAs) that facilitates collecting standardized data on conventionally recorded library outputs (e.g., visits, circulation, reference questions) as well as observable patron activities in the library; and
  • standardized questionnaires eliciting reports of the outcomes of public library service directly from patrons.

The project developed these tools and demonstrated their use by 45 public libraries representing 20 states and all 4 major regions of the United States (i.e., Northeast, South, Midwest, West). In addition to reporting data on conventional library service outputs, the project generated data on the observed library activities of more than 40,000 patrons and reports of the outcomes of library services from more than 5,500 patrons. Thus, this project completed the largest, most comprehensive, and most detailed multi-state data collection of this type attempted to date (see Chapter 3).

This project built upon the Public Library Association’s Planning for Results (PfR) model by designing data collection tools for 6 CoR service responses that were derived from 9 of PfR’s 13 service responses: Basic Literacy, Business and Career Information, Library as a Place (Commons), General Information, Information Literacy, and Local History and Genealogy.

Colorado Public Libraries & the “Digital Divide” 2002

(corrected October 2004)

Public libraries in Colorado are bridging the technology gap that is symptomatic of the “digital divide.” The availability of technology in public libraries fulfills a highly demanded patron need spanning all demographic groups. “The rate of growth of internet use in the United States is currently two million new internet users per month. … Internet use is increasing for people regardless of income, education, age, races, ethnicity or gender.” The technology have-nots are not just the poor and under-educated. People from all walks of life rely on the internet access provided by public libraries. This survey shows that library patrons are teaching themselves new technology skills, communicating on a global level, and accessing online information regarding education, health, employment, and volunteer opportunities. As a result, they are able to improve their personal quality of life and that of their communities.

Technology in public libraries spans all demographics and fulfills a highly demanded patron need. Of responding public library internet users:

  • 84% indicated that the availability of computers in the library was one of the reasons for visiting the library that day.
  • 34% have no other access to the internet except through public internet computers.
  • 60% of those younger than 18 use public internet computers to work on school assignments.
  • 49% use the public internet computers for internet access more than once a week.
  • 24% of the people indicating the use of the public internet computers more than once a week were below poverty level.
  • 42% of those who use library computers more than once a week, have a bachelor’s degree or higher.

Technology have-nots are not limited to the poor or under-educated. Of responding public library internet users:

  • Men (53%) only slightly outnumber women (47%) in their use of public library internet access.
  • 67% of respondents indicated college-level coursework and higher.
  • 50% of those who rely on internet access through the public library were between 30 and 54 years of age.
  • 71% of survey participants reported no minor children living at home.

Public library internet users are teaching themselves new technology skills, communicating on a global level, and accessing online information on a wide variety of topics. With access to online information about education, health, employment and volunteer opportunities, they are improving their quality of life and that of their communities. Of responding public library internet users:

  • 72% identified searching for topic-specific information as their primary activity at public internet computers.
  • 38% have used public internet computers to look for a job.
  • Patrons who improved their income via public internet computers were twice as likely to be young adults between the ages of 18 and 29, the majority of whom made below $18,000 annually and were predominantly male.
  • 38% of those working on college assignments were minorities; of those people, 21% were Hispanic.
  • 49% of those seeking educational opportunities using public internet computers were female.
  • Colorado’s youth were twice as likely as any other age group to use public internet access to find volunteer opportunities. Example: 13% of those people under 18 versus 6% of patrons ages 30-54 and 4% of patrons 55 and older.
  • 20% of respondents spent time seeking health-related information on public internet computers.
  • 62% of respondents seeking health-related information were female.


  • Public Library Statistics & Profiles
    Dive into annual statistics from the Colorado Public Library Annual Report using our interactive tool, results tailored to trustees, and state totals and averages.
  • School Library Impact Studies
    School libraries have a profound impact on student achievement. Explore studies about this topic by LRS and other researchers in our comprehensive guide.
  • Fast Fact Reports
    Looking for a quick rundown of library research? Check out our Fast Facts, which highlight research and statistics about various library topics.


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LRS is part of the Colorado State Library, a unit of the Colorado Department of Education. We design and conduct library research for library and education professionals, public officials, and the media to inform practices and assessment needs.

This project is made possible by a grant from the U.S. Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS).

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